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SelfGravitating, Incompressible (DysonWong) Tori
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Schematics Illustrating Anchor Ring and/or Thin Ring Variable Notation 


Dyson (1893)  MacMillan (1958)  Ostriker (1964)  Wong (1973)  Fukushima (2016) 
Our Separate Chapter Discussion  Our Relevant Discussion, Below  Our Separate Chapter Discussion  Our Separate Chapter Discussion  Our Relevant Discussion, below 
Overview
In his pioneering work, F. W. Dyson (1893, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. A., 184, 43  95) and (1893, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. A., 184, 1041  1106) used analytic techniques to determine the approximate equilibrium structure of axisymmetric, uniformly rotating, incompressible tori. C.Y. Wong (1974, ApJ, 190, 675  694) extended Dyson's work, using numerical techniques to obtain more accurate — but still approximate — equilibrium structures for incompressible tori having solid body rotation. Since then, Y. Eriguchi & D. Sugimoto (1981, Progress of Theoretical Physics, 65, 1870  1875) and I. Hachisu, J. E. Tohline & Y. Eriguchi (1987, ApJ, 323, 592  613) have mapped out the full sequence of DysonWong tori, beginning from a bifurcation point on the Maclaurin spheroid sequence.

Thin Ring Approximation
MacMillan (1930)
Derivation of the Potential
In §102 of a book titled, The Theory of the Potential, W. D. MacMillan (1958; originally, 1930) derives an analytic expression for the gravitational potential of a uniform, infinitesimally thin, circular "hoop" of radius, ; as shown, immediately below, the hoop is labeled, , in his Figures 60 and 61.

In setting up this problem, MacMillan (1958) says (verbatim text is typeset in a dark green font), Let be any point in space not in . From drop the perpendicular to the plane of the hoop. Draw the diameter of the circle which, extended, passes through . Let be any point on the circle, and draw



Evidently and are the minimum and maximum values of as the point runs around the circle. If the angle is represented by , the arc element is , and — after multiplying MacMillan's §102, equation (1) through by (conventionally, the negative of) the gravitational constant, — the expression for the gravitational potential is



where, is the (uniform) linear mass density around the hoop, hence, the total mass of the hoop is .
Referring further to MacMillan's Figure 60 — digitally reproduced, above — if the lengths and are represented by and , respectively, then












Following MacMillan (1958) (p. 196), the expression for can further be written,









Hence, the expression for the potential becomes,



As MacMillan (1958) argues, … this expression shows that is symmetric in and , for if is replaced by it becomes



and therefore



Along the axis of the hoop, , and if is their common value, it is seen at once that the value of the potential along this axis is,



Furthermore, according to MacMillan (1958), … the function is homogeneous of degree " 1" in and . Therefore, is homogeneous of degree zero and depends only upon the ratio . With this in mind, let's rewrite the expression for the potential in the form,









In addition to the hoop, , Figure 61 in §102 of MacMillan (1958) — digitally reproduced, above — displays a curve in the meridional plane of the hoop for which the ratio,



where is a constant. As MacMillan (1958) argues, the displayed curve is a circle because this equation is the equation of a circle in bipolar coordinates; and this circle … divides the line harmonically, since by this last equation,



It is clear, therefore, that at every point along this meridional circle, the potential is given by the expression,
Gravitational Potential of a Thin Ring  

where, is the complete elliptic integral of the first kind for the parameter,

The parameter, , always lies between zero and unity. For later reference, we note that,





and,












This gives us what we will henceforth refer to as the,
Gravitational Potential in the Thin Ring (TR) Approximation  

Notice that in finalizing the precise notational form of this "key equation," we have chosen to rewrite the argument of the complete elliptic integral of the first kind in terms of the elliptic modulus, , rather than in terms of the parameter .
Some Geometric Relations

Throughout his derivation, MacMillan (1958) uses the parameter, , to represent the radius of the circular "hoop" — that is, the distance from the center of the hoop to either point or point as marked in both Figure 60 and Figure 61. In the diagram presented here, on the right, we have modified his Figure 61 (modifications are in red) to explicitly identify two additional lengths that will come into play when we reference toroidal coordinates, below: The parameter, , identifies the distance from the center of the hoop to the center of the meridionalplane circle; and the parameter, , identifies the radius of this meridionalplane circle. (Note that the distance between point and the center of the meridionalplane circle is .) Given that the meridionalplane circle has been drawn in such a way that the ratio, , at all points along the circle, a useful relationship can be derived between the three parameters, and as follows.
If is moved around the circle to align with point , we can write,

and, 


Similarly, if is moved around the circle to align with point , we can write,

and, 


Equating these two expressions for then gives,


















or, finally,
Geometric Relationship 


Similarly, it can be shown that,






Thus, the aspect ratio,



Bannikova et al. (2011)  Thin Ring
In a paper titled, Gravitational Potential of a Homogeneous Circular Torus: a New Approach, E. Y. Bannikova, V. G. Vakulik & V. M. Shulga (2011, MNRAS, 411, 557  564) begin by reviewing what the expression is for an infinitesimally thin, axisymmetric hoop. Specifically, referencing the central ring — see their equations (1)  (3) — they state that,



where,






Noting that,





We see that, aside from the adopted sign convention, the Bannikova et al. (2011) expression for exactly matches the expression for the "Gravitational Potential of a Thin Ring" that is obtained from MacMillan's (1958) derivation.
Fukushima (2016)  Thin Ring
As is discussed in considerable depth, below, Toshio Fukushima (2016, AJ, 152, id. 35, 31 pp.) has used zonal toroidal harmonics to examine the gravitational field external to ringlike objects. In the first segment of §3 of his paper, Fukushima introduces a potential function, , that, in his words, "is a special solution of simplified Poisson's equation being valid in the whole space." From his equations (21), (62), (63), and (64), we see that,



where,



and the parameter,



Given that (see, for example, Fukushima's equations 19 and 7, in conjunction with his Figure 1),

and 

we recognize that the parameter, , can be rewritten as,



Acknowledging furthermore — see our more extensive discussion, below — the parameter mapping,

and 

it is clear that Fukushima's parameter, , is identical to MacMillan's modulus, , and that Fukushima's expression for is identical to the expression for the "Gravitational Potential of a Thin Ring" that we have presented above. Indeed, immediately preceding his equation (62), Fukushima explicitly acknowledges that his expression for has been drawn from O. D. Kellogg (1929).
Graphical Depiction in the Meridional Plane of the Gravitational Potential of a Thin, Axisymmetric Ring  

Extracted without modification from T. Fukushima (2016)
"Zonal Toroidal Harmonic Expansions of External Gravitational Fields for Ringlike Objects'"
Astronomical Journal, vol. 152, id. 35, 31 pp. © AAS 

Fukushima's Figure 4  Fukushima's Figure 5  Fukushima's Figure 6  
Our Effort to Reproduce Fukushima's Figures 

Figures 4, 5, & 6 of Fukushima (2016) display, with quantitative accuracy, the behavior of the potential function, , where is a normalization factor. We have extracted digital copies of these three figures and have displayed them, without modification, in the above figure ensemble. We have evaluated the expression for the potential of an infinitesimally thin ring as derived by MacMillan (1958) and, in the same figure ensemble, have displayed the results in a manner that facilitates comparison with Fukushima's published results; our displayed results incorporate the normalization, , so, given the high degree of quantitative overlap, we presume that this is the normalization that was adopted by Fukushima. In the leftmost panel of our figure ensemble, we have displayed the absolute value of this same twodimensional, normalized potential function in the form of a warped surface; this has been done largely for visual effect. We should point out that our pair of multicolored contour plots — both the warped surface and its flat projection onto the meridional plane — cover an area that extends from the cylindricalcoordinate axes out to the boundaries, , whereas Fukushima's contour plot (his Figure 4) extends twice as far in both directions.
Geometrically Thick, UniformDensity Torus with Circular CrossSection
Highlighted Models  

Reference  Figure(s)  
Wong (1973), §II.D  Figs. 6 & 7  
Cohl & Tohline (1999), §3.2.1  Fig. 5  
Bannikova et al. (2011) , §2  Figs. 2  3  
Bannikova et al. (2011), §5  Fig. 8  
Trova, et al. (2012) , §8  Figs. 4  9  
Fukushima (2016), §5.2  Figs. 17  20 
Our Integral Expressions
General, TwoDimensional Integral
In our accompanying statement of this problem, we have written,



where, is the complete elliptic integral of the first kind, and,



Wong (1973, 1974)
In a paper titled, Toroidal Figures of Equilibrium, C.Y. Wong (1974, ApJ, 190, 675  694) remarks that a "detailed analysis of toroidal figure of equilibrium has not received much attention since the last century. Previous work on this problem was carried out by":
 Poincaré (1885a, C. R. Acad. Sci., 100, 346), (1885b, Bull. Astr., 2, 109), (1885c, Bull. Astr. 2, 405). — references copied from paper by Wong (1974)
 S. Kowalewsky (1885, Astronomische Nachrichten, 111, 37) — Zusätze und Bemerkungen zu Laplace's Untersuchung über die Gestalt der Saturnsringe
 F. W. Dyson (1893, Philosophical Transaction of the Royal Society London. A., 184, 43  95) — The Potential of an Anchor Ring. Part I.
 In this paper, Dyson derives the gravitational potential exterior to the ring mass distribution
 F. W. Dyson (1893, Philosophical Transaction of the Royal Society London. A., 184, 1041  1106) — The Potential of an Anchor Ring. Part II.
 In this paper, Dyson derives the gravitational potential inside the ring mass distribution
Wong argues that a "reexamination of the toroidal figures of equilibrium is … necessary, because in all the previous analyses the physical quantities are expanded as a power series of the inverse of the aspect ratio. Such an expansion breaks down in the interesting region of small aspect ratios where one wishes to observe the transition between the Maclaurin sequence to the toroidal sequence. Furthermore, the classical solutions … can only treat small perturbations from a circular meridian …"
Principal Simplification: Following Poincaré, Dyson, and Kowalewsky, Wong confines his analysis to toroidal structures that have (a) uniform and incompressible mass distribution, and throughout which (b) the angular velocity is assumed to be independent of positions.
It is worth pointing out that Wong pursued this astrophysically relevant research problem at a time when, apparently, the principal focus of his work was nuclear physics. We suspect this is the case because, (a) his byline lists Oak Ridge National Laboratory as his employer; (b) in the acknowledgement section of his paper, Wong states that he "is indebted to ProfessorJ. A. Wheeler who either consciously or unconsciously introduced the author to the subject matter with his toroidal geons and toroidal nuclei;" and Wong references and draws upon a paper that he published one year earlier — specifically, C.Y. Wong (1973, Annals of Physics, 77, 279  353) — titled, Toroidal and Spherical Bubble Nuclei.
Introducing Toroidal Coordinates

C.Y. Wong (1973) introduces the toroidal coordinate system as follows (direct quotes from the article are displayed here in a dark green font). Referencing the figure — shown here on the right — that has been extracted without modification from Wong's article, the surfaces of constant are generated by rotating a circle about the axis of symmetry, the axis. These surfaces are toroidal surfaces. A toroidal surface of coordinate can be characterized by a "major radius" and a "minor radius" . Note that in the article by Wong the three parameters, , represent the same geometric lengths as in our discussion, above, of MacMillan's (1930) derivation; and Wong's radial coordinate, , plays the same role as MacMillan's parameter, — the mathematical relationship between the two is presented below.
The quantity varies from zero to infinity. The larger the value of , the smaller is the "minor radius" ; when approaches infinity, the twodimensional toroidal surface degenerates into a 1dimensional circle with a radius . It is in this limit that Wong's torus becomes the infinitesimally thin, axisymmetric hoop analyzed by MacMillan (1930).
The surfaces of constant are spherical bowls. The coordinate is defined in such a way that points above the xy plane are characterized by positive values of while points below the xy plane by negative values of . Thus varies from to . As is also the case for a spherical coordinate system, the surfaces of constant are half planes through the axis of symmetry. The coordinate varies from to .
Referencing the abovederived geometric relationship, we see that for a toroidal surface of major radius and minor radius , the parameter is defined such that,



Wong (1973), Eq. (2.8) 
The corresponding "radial" coordinate location of the relevant toroidal surface is,



Wong (1973), Eq. (2.9) 
We see, therefore, that MacMillan's (1958) parameter, , is related to Wong's "radial" coordinate via the expression,
Alternatively, given and the value of the parameter , we have,






Wong (1973), Eqs. (2.10) & (2.11) 
Hence, the aspect ratio is,



Wong (1973), Eq. (2.12) 
Given the value of the scalelength, , the relationship between toroidal coordinates and Cartesian coordinates is [see equations 2.1  2.3 of Wong (1973) ],









LaTeX mathematical expressions cutandpasted directly from



As an additional point of reference, note that according to §14.19 of NIST's Digital Library of Mathematical Functions, the relationship between Cartesian and toroidal coordinates is given by the expressions,

Mapping the other direction [see equations 2.13  2.15 of Wong (1973) ], we have,









where,






and has the same sign as .
Relationship Between Wong's and MacMillan's Parameter Notation  

A comparison between Wong's Figure 1 and, for example, MacMillan's Figure 61 reveals the following parameter notation relationships:
Given that MacMillan's parameter, , it is clear that is related to Wong's "radial" coordinate, via the expression,
This also makes sense, in that,




If then, in terms of the major and the minor radii of the torus, the volume is,



Wong (1973), Eq. (2.19) 
If such a torus has a uniform density, , throughout, and a total charge (mass), , then the charge (mass) and density will be related through the toroidalcoordinate expression (see Wong's equation 2.51),



Also, as Wong (1973) points out (see his equation 2.50), in this case the density distribution may be written as,



where, the argument , and is the step function defined by,



for 



for 
The Coulomb Potential
As Wong (1973) reminds us, the Coulomb potential, , at a point due to an arbitrary charge distribution, , is,



Referencing, for example, equation (3) of Cohl and Tohline (1999), we see that if we let represent a mass distribution instead of a charge distribution, this identical expression will give the Newtonian gravitational potential if we simply multiply through by (conventionally, the negative of) the gravitational constant, .
From the above expression for the differential volume element in toroidal coordinates, the righthand side of this expression for the potential becomes,



Wong (1973), Eq. (2.52) 
Next, Wong (1973) points out that in toroidal coordinates the Green's function is,






Wong (1973), Eq. (2.53) 
where, are "Legendre functions of the first and second kind with order and degree (toroidal harmonics)," and is the Neumann factor, that is, and for all .
LaTeX mathematical expressions cutandpasted directly from



Note that, according to §14.19(iii) of NIST's Digital Library of Mathematical Functions,

After plugging this Green's function into the expression for the potential, then integrating over the azimuthal angle — which is permitted, here, because the density distribution, , is assumed to be axisymmetric — Wong (1973) obtains,






Wong (1973), Eq. (2.55) 
which is valid for any azimuthal angle, . Notice that the step function, , no longer explicitly appears in this expression for the Coulomb (or gravitational) potential; it has been used to establish the specific limits on the "radial" coordinate integration. Next, he completes the integration over the angle, , to obtain,






Wong (1973), Eq. (2.57) 
TO BE DONE:

Finally, Wong (1973) was able to complete the integration over the radial coordinate, to obtain an expression for the potential — most generally, his equation (2.59) — at all interior as well as all exterior coordinate positions, .
Interior Solution
The interior solution is:






Wong (1973), Eq. (2.65) 
where,



Wong (1973), Eq. (2.62) 
Exterior Solution
The exterior solution is:



Wong (1973), Eqs. (2.59) & (2.60) combined 
where,



Wong (1973), Eq. (2.63) 
Wong (1973) goes on to say that … for the case of a very thin ring (i.e., ), the exterior solution has contributions mostly from the first term in the expansion of the series … By considering the asymptotic values as , one obtains the potential at a point exterior to a thin ring given by



He goes on to state that this expression can be shown to be identical to the result for a thin ring obtained in a simple integration without using the toroidal coordinates … namely,



Wong (1973), Eq. (2.67) 
where,
After making the substitution, , we see that this is, indeed, the expression that has been derived, above, for the gravitational potential in the thin ring approximation, .
Thin Ring Approximation as Presented by Thorne (1965)  
Interestingly, for an example of a derivation of the thin ring approximation, which we have reviewed above, rather than referencing Kellogg (1929) or MacMillan (1958), Wong (1973) points to an article by Thorne (1965), which was published in the Proceedings of the 1^{st} Texas Symposium on Relativistic Astrophysics (1965), eds., I. Robinson, A. Schild, & E. L. Schucking (Chicago: Chicago University Press). Presumably this reflects Wong's personal interactions with J. A. Wheeler's research group at Princeton University, as Thorne was a student of Wheeler.
But Thorne actually presents a solution to a generalrelativisticbased initialvalue equation that reads,
He sets up his problem of interest in the context of a toroidal magnetic geon at a moment of time symmetry as seen in the base metric ; see his Figure 1, reproduced there, on the right. More specifically, he imagines a situation where existing magnetic field lines are entirely contained within a torus of major radius and minor radius , as measured in the base metric … and with . As Thorne points out, this … initial value equation is just Poisson's equation with as the source of the "conformal correction factor" .

Bannikova et al. (2011)
In §2 of their paper, Bannikova et al. (2011) develop an integral expression — ultimately, their equation (8) — for the gravitational potential both inside and outside of a uniformdensity, axisymmetric, thick torus that has a circular crosssection. They accomplish this by imagining that the (axisymmetric) torus is composed of a set of infinitely thin, axisymmetric rings with their planes being parallel to the torus symmetry plane. [Note that, 28 years earlier, Stahler (1983) adopted precisely this same strategy to evaluate the gravitational potential of axisymmetric, inhomogeneous configurations; see our separate discussion of Stahler's work in the context of rotationally flattened, isothermal structures.] In recording, here, the expression derived by Bannikova et al. (2011), we will substitute parameter names as detailed in the following "mapping" table.
Parameter Mapping  

Bannikova et al. (2011)  Our Analysis 
Integrating Bannikova et al.'s (2011) equation (7) over the volume of the torus — after inserting the expression for provided by their equation (5), and making the stipulated substitution, — we find,












where, according to their equation (6),






Recognizing that the density of material in a uniformdensity torus is the total mass divided by the volume of the torus, i.e., it is , we see that this integral expression is identical to the one we have professed, above, is the correct one.
Fukushima (2016)
Setup
T. Fukushima (2016, AJ, 152, id. 35, 31 pp.) has also used zonal toroidal harmonics to examine the gravitational field external to ringlike objects. But, while continuing to associate the parameter, , with the equatorialplane radius of the central ring, and to reference the same polar and azimuthal angles as Wong (1973), Fukushima uses a meridionalplane radial coordinate, , that, in practice, maps to Wong's (1973) coordinate, , and to MacMillan's (1958) parameter, as,
Comparing Fukushima's (2016) Figure 1 — digitally reproduced, immediately below — with MacMillan's (1958) Figure 60 reveals the following parameter notation relationships:

and 

Given that MacMillan's parameter, , it is clear that Fukushima's (2016) "radial" coordinate, , can also be defined via the relation,



Fukushima (2016), Eq. (19) 
This is the expression for the coordinate, , that appears as equation (19) in Fukushima (2016) and is recorded in the legend of his Figure 1.
Figure 1 extracted from T. Fukushima (2016)
"Zonal Toroidal Harmonic Expansions of External Gravitational Fields for Ringlike Objects'"
Astronomical Journal, vol. 152, id. 35, 31 pp. © AAS  
Reproduced without Modification  Modified (red font) 

Fukushima also introduces a set of coordinatedependent functions — and — that, in effect, allow his derivations to be presented in a relatively compact form. Table 1, below, details the relationships between this set of functions and the coordinates/functions used by Wong as well as the coordinates/functions preferred by Morse & Feshbach (1953) that we have adopted in an associated discussion. Then, for example, the mapping between Fukushima's adopted set of meridionalplane coordinates and cylindrical coordinates is:

and 

[As is emphasized by the manner in which we have modified his Figure 1 — see the righthand panel of the composite image, immediately above — we will use instead of to represent the cylindrical radial coordinate throughout our discussion of Fukushima's (2016) work.] Using toroidal coordinates, a meridionalplane circle describing a crosssection through the torus is defined by setting = constant. The relevant relation can be obtained by combining this pair of expressions to eliminate . From the first, we see that,









Using the second to replace in the first, we obtain,









Together, this pair of relations implies,


















Now, given that (see Table 1), , this last expression can be rewritten as,












Fukushima (2016), Eq. (27) 
This last expression not only matches equation (27) in Fukushima (2016) but, as has been pointed out in an accompanying discussion of the paper by Trova, et al. (2012), its form matches the familiar algebraic expression for an offaxis circle. The circle — which, here, is associated with a meridional crosssection of the = constant torus — has a (crosssectional) radius,
and its center is shifted a distance,
away from the symmetry axis. Via his equations (26) and (25), Fukushima (2016) labels these key geometric lengths as, respectively, and . We should point out that the other key geometric length, — which defines the size of the central ring as depicted in Figure 1 of Fukushima (2016) — is related to and via the expression,
And it should be emphasized that is always smaller than , except in the limit of , in which case the two lengths are the same.
TABLE 1: Mapping Between CoordinateDependent Functions  





























Letting mark the external point at which the gravitational potential is to be evaluated — see his Figure 1, a digital replica of which is shown immediately above, on the left — Fukushima (2016) uses to represent the shortest distance between and the central ring, and uses to represent the greatest distance between and the central ring. It is straightforward to show that,





Fukushima (2016), Eqs. (21) & (23) 





Fukushima (2016), Eqs. (22) & (24) 
It is worth detailing how the cylindricalcoordinate expression for is converted into the stated expression in terms of Fukushima's coordinates. (Transformation of is done in an analogous fashion.) For , we have,





















where, along the way, we have used the fact that and, again, recognized that, .
UniformDensity, Circular Torus
Fukushima's (2016) tackles this same problem in §5.2 of his article. The following table identifies the parameter mapping between the notation adopted by Fukushima (2016) and our adopted conventions; note that, when Fukushima attaches an asterisk to a coordinate or variable, it appears as a superscript whereas when we have used an asterisk, it appears as a subscript.
Parameter Mapping  

Fukushima's (2016)  Our Analysis 
Fukushima's expression for the external gravitational potential is (see his equations 138  142),















where,



and the integration limit,
This matches the integral expression that we have derived and repeated, above.
See Also
 T. Fukushima (2016, AJ, 152, article id. 35, 31 pp.) — Zonal Toroidal Harmonic Expansions of External Gravitational Fields for Ringlike Objects
 W.T. Kim & S. Moon (2016, ApJ, 829, article id. 45, 22 pp.) — Equilibrium Sequences and Gravitational Instability of Rotating Isothermal Rings
 E. Y. Bannikova, V. G. Vakulik & V. M. Shulga (2011, MNRAS, 411, 557  564) — Gravitational Potential of a Homogeneous Circular Torus: a New Approach
 D. Petroff & S. Horatschek (2008, MNRAS, 389,156  172) — Uniformly Rotating Homogeneous and Polytropic Rings in Newtonian Gravity
The following quotes have been taken from Petroff & Horatschek (2008):
§1: "The problem of the selfgravitating ring captured the interest of such renowned scientists as Kowalewsky (1885), Poincaré (1885a,b,c) and Dyson (1892, 1893). Each of them tackled the problem of an axially symmetric, homogeneous ring in equilibrium by expanding it about the thin ring limit. In particular, Dyson provided a solution to fourth order in the parameter , where provides a measure for the radius of the crosssection of the ring and the distance of the crosssection's centre of mass from the axis of rotation."
§7: "In their work on homogeneous rings, Poincaré and Kowalewsky, whose results disagreed to first order, both had made mistakes as Dyson has shown. His result to fourth order is also erroneous as we point out in Appendix B." 
 P. H. Chavanis (2006, International Journal of Modern Physics B, 20, 3113  3198) — Phase Transitions in SelfGravitating Systems
 M. Ansorg, A. Kleinwächter & R. Meinel (2003, MNRAS, 339, 515) — Uniformly Rotating Axisymmetric Fluid Configurations Bifurcating from Highly Flattened Maclaurin Spheroids
 M. Lombardi & G. Bertin (2001, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 375, 1091  1099) — Boyle's Law and Gravitational Instability
 W. Kley (1996, MNRAS, 282, 234) — Maclurin Discs and Bifurcations to Rings
 J. W. Woodward, J. E. Tohline, & I. Hachisu (1994, ApJ, 420, 247  267) — The Stability of Thick, SelfGravitating Disks in Protostellar Systems
 I. Bonnell & P. Bastien (1991, ApJ, 374, 610  622) — The Collapse of Cylindrical Isothermal and Polytropic Clouds with Rotation
 J. E. Tohline & I. Hachisu (1990, ApJ, 361, 394  407) — The Breakup of SelfGravitating Rings, Tori, and Thick Accretion Disks
 F. Schmitz (1988, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 200, 127  134) — Equilibrium Structures of Differentially Rotating SelfGravitating Gases
 P. Veugelen (1985, Astrophysics & Space Science, 109, 45  55) — Equilibrium Models of Differentially Rotating Polytropic Cylinders
 M. A. Abramowicz, A. Curir, A. SchwarzenbergCzerny, & R. E. Wilson (1984, MNRAS, 208, 279  291) — SelfGravity and the Global Structure of Accretion Discs
 P. Bastien (1983, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 119, 109  116) — Gravitational Collapse and Fragmentation of Isothermal, NonRotating, Cylindrical Clouds
 Y. Eriguchi & D. Sugimoto (1981, Progress of Theoretical Physics, 65, 1870  1875) — Another Equilibrium Sequence of SelfGravitating and Rotating Incompressible Fluid
 J. E. Tohline (1980, ApJ, 236, 160  171) — Ring Formation in Rotating Protostellar Clouds
 T. Fukushima, Y. Eriguchi, D. Sugimoto, & G. S. BisnovatyiKogan (1980, Progress of Theoretical Physics, 63, 1957  1970) — Concave Hamburger Equilibrium of Rotating Bodies
 J. Katz & D. LyndenBell (1978, MNRAS, 184, 709  712) — The Gravothermal Instability in Two Dimensions
 P. S. Marcus, W. H. Press, & S. A. Teukolsky (1977, ApJ, 214, 584 597) — Stablest Shapes for an Axisymmetric Body of Gravitating, Incompressible Fluid (includes torus with nonuniform rotation)
 Shortly after their equation (3.2), Marcus, Press & Teukolsky make the following statement: "… we know that an equilibrium incompressible configuration must rotate uniformly on cylinders (the famous "PoincaréWavre" theorem, cf. Tassoul 1977, &Sect;4.3) …"
 C. J. Hansen, M. L. Aizenman, & R. L. Ross (1976, ApJ, 207, 736  744) — The Equilibrium and Stability of Uniformly Rotating, Isothermal Gas Cylinders
 C.Y. Wong (1974, ApJ, 190, 675  694) — Toroidal Figures of Equilibrium
 C.Y. Wong (1973, Annals of Physics, 77, 279  353) — Toroidal and Spherical Bubble Nuclei
 J. Ostriker (1964, ApJ, 140, 1056) — The Equilibrium of Polytropic and Isothermal Cylinders
 J. Ostriker (1964, ApJ, 140, 1067) — The Equilibrium of SelfGravitating Rings
 J. Ostriker (1964, ApJ, 140, 1529) — On the Oscillations and the Stability of a Homogeneous Compressible Cylinder
 J. Ostriker (1965, ApJ Supplements, 11, 167) — Cylindrical Emden and Associated Functions
 Gunnar Randers (1942, ApJ, 95, 88) — The Equilibrium and Stability of RingShaped 'barred SPIRALS'.
 William Duncan MacMillan (1958), The Theory of the Potential, New York: Dover Publications
 Oliver Dimon Kellogg (1929), Foundations of Potential Theory, Berlin: Verlag Von Julius Springer
 Lord Rayleigh (1917, Proc. Royal Society of London. Series A, 93, 148154) — On the Dynamics of Revolving Fluids
 F. W. Dyson (1893, Philosophical Transaction of the Royal Society London. A., 184, 1041  1106) — The Potential of an Anchor Ring. Part II.
 In this paper, Dyson derives the gravitational potential inside the ring mass distribution
 F. W. Dyson (1893, Philosophical Transaction of the Royal Society London. A., 184, 43  95) — The Potential of an Anchor Ring. Part I.
 In this paper, Dyson derives the gravitational potential exterior to the ring mass distribution
 S. Kowalewsky (1885, Astronomische Nachrichten, 111, 37) — Zusätze und Bemerkungen zu Laplace's Untersuchung über die Gestalt der Saturnsringe
 Poincaré (1885a, C. R. Acad. Sci., 100, 346), (1885b, Bull. Astr., 2, 109), (1885c, Bull. Astr. 2, 405). — references copied from paper by Wong (1974)
© 2014  2020 by Joel E. Tohline 