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(Drop Dynamics Experiments: Add links to several post-flight presentation videos that show drop dynamics experiments)
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==Drop Dynamics Experiments==
==Drop Dynamics Experiments==
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[On '''<font color="red">1 January 2014</font>''', J. E. Tohline wrote ...] As I was putting this chapter together, I had difficulty documenting the various drop dynamics experiments that have been conducted by astronauts in various Earth-orbiting (zero <math>g</math>) environments.  Here is the relevant information that I have found, to date:
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[On '''<font color="red">1 January 2014</font>''', J. E. Tohline wrote ...] As I was putting this chapter together, I had difficulty documenting the various drop dynamics experiments that have been conducted by astronauts in various Earth-orbiting (zero <math>g</math>) environments.  Here is the relevant information that I have found, to date.
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* '''<font color="darkblue">Skylab</font>''' (circa 1973-1974):  Experiments showing the ''fission'' of liquid drops were evidently conducted during the Skylab 2, Skylab 3, and Skylab 4 missions.   
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===Skylab===
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** As has been documented in a short film review written by Howard Voss and published in the [http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.10227 American Journal of Physics (44/10, 1021, Oct 1976)], film footage from a variety of Skylab experiments was produced by NASA, edited by Thomas Campbell &amp; Robert Fuller, and, beginning in 1976, distributed as 12 [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Super_8_film Super 8] film loops by the [http://www.aapt.org/ American Association of Physics Teachers] (AAPT).
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Experiments showing the ''fission'' of liquid drops were evidently conducted during the Skylab 2, Skylab 3, and Skylab 4 missions (circa 1973-1974).   
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** As is documented in [http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/~lecturedemonstrations/Linked%20files/Media%20library/Skylab%20guide%20(videodisc).pdf A Teacher's Guide for the Skylab Physics Videodisc] the content of all 12 Super 8 film loops was made available for distribution in [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Videodisc Videodisc] format in 1987 through the [http://www.aapt.org/ AAPT].
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* As has been documented in a short film review written by Howard Voss and published in the [http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.10227 American Journal of Physics (44/10, 1021, Oct 1976)], film footage from a variety of Skylab experiments was produced by NASA, edited by Thomas Campbell &amp; Robert Fuller, and, beginning in 1976, distributed as 12 [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Super_8_film Super 8] film loops by the [http://www.aapt.org/ American Association of Physics Teachers] (AAPT).
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** The YouTube video referenced in and linked to the caption of Figure 1, above, is the digitized version of the Skylab film loop that illustrates fission of a water droplet.
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* As is documented in [http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/~lecturedemonstrations/Linked%20files/Media%20library/Skylab%20guide%20(videodisc).pdf A Teacher's Guide for the Skylab Physics Videodisc] the content of all 12 Super 8 film loops was made available for distribution in [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Videodisc Videodisc] format in 1987 through the [http://www.aapt.org/ AAPT].
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* The YouTube video referenced in and linked to the caption of Figure 1, above, is the digitized version of the Skylab film loop that illustrates fission of a water droplet.
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* '''<font color="darkblue">Space Shuttle Flights</font>''':  Experiments illustrating the dynamical behavior of liquid drops were also conducted during several space shuttle missions.  Some experiments were performed inside the European Space Agency's "spacelab module" and others were performed with the aid of a "Drop Physics Module (DPM)" inside the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML), each being a "portable" laboratory that was housed in the shuttle's payload bay.
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===Space Shuttle Flights===
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** [[File:Sts51b_patch.jpg|100px|right|Spacelab 3]]Wang, Trinh, Croonquist, and Elleman (1986; [http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986PhRvL..56..452W Physical Review Letters, 56, 452]) report results from a controlled drop dynamics experiment that was conducted during the "Spacelab III mission" (see the final acknowledgement paragraph of their paper), which took place during shuttle flight [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-51-B STS-51-B (29 April - 6 May 1985)].  Taylor Wang &#8212; one of the authors of this ''PRL'' publication &#8212; flew as one of the seven members of the space shuttle crew, specifically as Payload Specialist 2.  His narrated account of some of the experimental activities is available, beginning at 7 minutes 32 seconds into the [http://www.nss.org/resources/library/shuttlevideos/shuttle17.htm STS-51B "Post Flight Presentation" video].
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Experiments illustrating the dynamical behavior of liquid drops were conducted during several space shuttle missions.  Some experiments were performed inside the European Space Agency's "spacelab module" and others were performed with the aid of a "Drop Physics Module (DPM)" inside the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML), each being a "portable" laboratory that was housed in the shuttle's payload bay.
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** [[File:fluid_drop.jpg|100px|right|frame|USML-1 Droplet Fission]]Another mission &#8212; [http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-50.html USML-1 during shuttle flight STS-50] &#8212; took place in early 1992. According to [http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/releases/95/release_1995_9571.html information provided by NASA/JPL's public information office], "&#8230; the transition of rotating liquid drops into a 'dog-bone,' or two-lobed shape, was studied in detail &#8230;"  As can be seen, beginning at 2 minutes 28 seconds into the [http://www.nss.org/resources/library/shuttlevideos/shuttle48.htm STS-50 "Post Flight Presentation" video], Eugene Trinh flew was one of the members of this shuttle mission who conducted these DMP experiments.  Detailed results from DPM experiments during the USML-1 mission have been published in the Journal of Fluid Mechanics:  T. G. Wang, A. V. Anilkumar, C. P. Lee and K. C. Lin (1994).  ''Bifurcation of rotating liquid drops: results from USML-1 experiments in Space.'' [http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022112094002612 Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 276, pp 389-403]
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* [[File:Sts51b_patch.jpg|100px|right|Spacelab 3]]Wang, Trinh, Croonquist, and Elleman (1986; [http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986PhRvL..56..452W Physical Review Letters, 56, 452]) report results from a controlled drop dynamics experiment that was conducted during the "Spacelab III mission" (see the final acknowledgement paragraph of their paper), which took place during shuttle flight [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-51-B STS-51-B (29 April - 6 May 1985)].  Taylor Wang &#8212; one of the authors of this ''PRL'' publication &#8212; flew as one of the seven members of the space shuttle crew, specifically as Payload Specialist 2.  His narrated account of some of the experimental activities is available, beginning at 7 minutes 32 seconds into the [http://www.nss.org/resources/library/shuttlevideos/shuttle17.htm STS-51B "Post Flight Presentation" video].
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** I think that the three-frame black &amp; white image shown here on the right presents a result from mission USML-1.  That is how this image is referenced in an [http://www.phys.lsu.edu/astro/movie_captions/fission.html online discussion of fission] that I put together about a decade ago.
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* [[File:fluid_drop.jpg|100px|right|frame|USML-1 Droplet Fission]]Another mission &#8212; [http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-50.html USML-1 during shuttle flight STS-50] &#8212; took place in early 1992. According to [http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/releases/95/release_1995_9571.html information provided by NASA/JPL's public information office], "&#8230; the transition of rotating liquid drops into a 'dog-bone,' or two-lobed shape, was studied in detail &#8230;"  As can be seen, beginning at 2 minutes 28 seconds into the [http://www.nss.org/resources/library/shuttlevideos/shuttle48.htm STS-50 "Post Flight Presentation" video], Eugene Trinh flew was one of the members of this shuttle mission who conducted these DMP experiments.  Detailed results from DPM experiments during the USML-1 mission have been published in the Journal of Fluid Mechanics:  T. G. Wang, A. V. Anilkumar, C. P. Lee and K. C. Lin (1994).  ''Bifurcation of rotating liquid drops: results from USML-1 experiments in Space.'' [http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022112094002612 Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 276, pp 389-403]
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** Yet another mission &#8212; [http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-73.html USML-2 during shuttle flight STS-73] &#8212; took place in the fall of 1995.  It is clear that some additional drop dynamics experiments were conducted during this mission &#8212; see, for example, about 7 minutes and 40 seconds into the [http://www.nss.org/resources/library/shuttlevideos/shuttle72.htm STS-73 "Post Flight Presentation" video] &#8212; but I have not been able to find published results from these USML-2 DPM experiments.
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* I think that the three-frame black &amp; white image shown here on the right presents a result from mission USML-1.  That is how this image is referenced in an [http://www.phys.lsu.edu/astro/movie_captions/fission.html online discussion of fission] that I put together about a decade ago.
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* Yet another mission &#8212; [http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-73.html USML-2 during shuttle flight STS-73] &#8212; took place in the fall of 1995.  Some additional drop dynamics experiments were conducted during this mission &#8212; see, for example, about 7 minutes and 40 seconds into the [http://www.nss.org/resources/library/shuttlevideos/shuttle72.htm STS-73 "Post Flight Presentation" video].  Lee, Anilkumar, Hmelo, &amp; Wang (1998; [http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998JFM...354...43L Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 354, 43]) report results from these controlled drop dynamics experiments.  
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* '''<font color="darkblue">International Space Station</font>''' (circa 2000):
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===International Space Station===
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** See the two "Gallery of Fluid Motions" mpg movies that accompany the preprint by [http://arxiv.org/abs/1210.4073v1 Ueno et al. (2012)].
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* See the two "Gallery of Fluid Motions" mpg movies that accompany the preprint by [http://arxiv.org/abs/1210.4073v1 Ueno et al. (2012)].
==Online References==
==Online References==

Revision as of 12:26, 5 January 2014


Contents

Fission Hypothesis of Binary Star Formation

Whitworth's (1981) Isothermal Free-Energy Surface
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Illustration

Figure 1
Droplet Fission

YouTube video:
Skylab Drop Dynamics Experiment (1975)

Figure 2
Theoretical Model
Brown & Scriven (1980)
(Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 276, 389)

Figure 4
USML-1 Experiment
Wang, Anilkumar, Lee & Lin (1994)
(Proc. Roy. Soc. London, 371, 331)

Figure 3
Hachisu & Eriguchi scenario
Hachisu & Eriguchi (1984)
(Astrophysics and Space Science, 99, 71)

Related Discussions

Fission in Nuclear Physics

The nuclear physics community also draws an analogy between the fission of a rotating fluid drop and the spontaneous fission of atomic nuclei; see, for example, the figure associated with the Wikipedia discussion of the energetics of nuclear fission.

Drop Dynamics Experiments

[On 1 January 2014, J. E. Tohline wrote ...] As I was putting this chapter together, I had difficulty documenting the various drop dynamics experiments that have been conducted by astronauts in various Earth-orbiting (zero g) environments. Here is the relevant information that I have found, to date.

Skylab

Experiments showing the fission of liquid drops were evidently conducted during the Skylab 2, Skylab 3, and Skylab 4 missions (circa 1973-1974).

According to the Teacher's Guide mentioned above, the activities shown in the above-referenced films were carried out by three teams of Skylab Astronauts:

Skylab Astronauts

Kerwin blows water droplet from a straw


Skylab 2 (First Team)

Space Shuttle Flights

Experiments illustrating the dynamical behavior of liquid drops were conducted during several space shuttle missions. Some experiments were performed inside the European Space Agency's "spacelab module" and others were performed with the aid of a "Drop Physics Module (DPM)" inside the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML), each being a "portable" laboratory that was housed in the shuttle's payload bay.

International Space Station

  • See the two "Gallery of Fluid Motions" mpg movies that accompany the preprint by Ueno et al. (2012).

Online References

Whitworth's (1981) Isothermal Free-Energy Surface

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