User:Tohline/Cylindrical 3D

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Equations Cast in Cylindrical Coordinates

Spatial Operators in Cylindrical Coordinates

<math> \nabla f </math>


<math> {\hat{e}}_\varpi \biggl[ \frac{\partial f}{\partial\varpi} \biggr] + {\hat{e}}_\varphi {\biggl[ \frac{1}{\varpi} \frac{\partial f}{\partial\varphi} \biggr]} + {\hat{e}}_z \biggl[ \frac{\partial f}{\partial z} \biggr] ; </math>

<math> \nabla^2 f </math>


<math> \frac{1}{\varpi} \frac{\partial }{\partial\varpi} \biggl[ \varpi \frac{\partial f}{\partial\varpi} \biggr] + {\frac{1}{\varpi^2} \frac{\partial^2 f}{\partial\varphi^2}} + \frac{\partial^2 f}{\partial z^2} ; </math>

<math> (\vec{v}\cdot\nabla)f </math>


<math> \biggl[ v_\varpi \frac{\partial f}{\partial\varpi} \biggr] + {\biggl[ \frac{v_\varphi}{\varpi} \frac{\partial f}{\partial\varphi} \biggr]} + \biggl[ v_z \frac{\partial f}{\partial z} \biggr] ; </math>

<math> \nabla \cdot \vec{F} </math>


<math> \frac{1}{\varpi} \frac{\partial (\varpi F_\varpi)}{\partial\varpi} + {\frac{1}{\varpi} \frac{\partial F_\varphi}{\partial\varphi}} + \frac{\partial F_z}{\partial z} ; </math>

Vector Time-Derivatives in Cylindrical Coordinates

<math> \frac{d}{dt}\vec{F} </math>


<math> {\hat{e}}_\varpi \frac{dF_\varpi}{dt} + F_\varpi \frac{d{\hat{e}}_\varpi}{dt} + {\hat{e}}_\varphi \frac{dF_\varphi}{dt} + F_\varphi \frac{d{\hat{e}}_\varphi}{dt} + {\hat{e}}_z \frac{dF_z}{dt} + F_z \frac{d{\hat{e}}_z}{dt} </math>



<math> {\hat{e}}_\varpi \biggl[ \frac{dF_\varpi}{dt} - F_\varphi \dot\varphi \biggr] + {\hat{e}}_\varphi \biggl[ \frac{dF_\varphi}{dt} + F_\varpi \dot\varphi \biggr] + {\hat{e}}_z \frac{dF_z}{dt} ; </math>

<math> \vec{v} = \frac{d\vec{x}}{dt} = \frac{d}{dt}\biggl[ \hat{e}_\varpi \varpi + \hat{e}_z z \biggr] </math>


<math> {\hat{e}}_\varpi \biggl[ \dot\varpi \biggr] + {\hat{e}}_\varphi \biggl[ \varpi \dot\varphi \biggr] + {\hat{e}}_z \biggl[ \dot{z} \biggr] . </math>

Governing Equations

Introducing the above expressions into the principal governing equations gives,

Equation of Continuity

<math>\frac{d\rho}{dt} + \frac{\rho}{\varpi} \frac{\partial}{\partial\varpi} \biggl[ \varpi \dot\varpi \biggr] + \frac{1}{\varpi} \frac{\partial}{\partial \varphi} \biggl[ \varpi \dot\varphi \biggr] + \rho \frac{\partial}{\partial z} \biggl[ \dot{z} \biggr] = 0 </math>

Euler Equation

<math> {\hat{e}}_\varpi \biggl[ \frac{d \dot\varpi}{dt} - \varpi {\dot\varphi}^2 \biggr] + {\hat{e}}_\varphi \biggl[ \frac{d(\varpi\dot\varphi)}{dt} + \dot\varpi \dot\varphi \biggr] + {\hat{e}}_z \biggl[ \frac{d \dot{z}}{dt} \biggr] = - {\hat{e}}_\varpi \biggl[ \frac{1}{\rho}\frac{\partial P}{\partial\varpi} + \frac{\partial \Phi}{\partial\varpi}\biggr] - {\hat{e}}_\varphi \frac{1}{\varpi} \biggl[ \frac{1}{\rho}\frac{\partial P}{\partial \varphi} + \frac{\partial \Phi}{\partial \varphi} \biggr] - {\hat{e}}_z \biggl[ \frac{1}{\rho}\frac{\partial P}{\partial z} + \frac{\partial \Phi}{\partial z} \biggr] </math>

Adiabatic Form of the
First Law of Thermodynamics

<math>~\frac{d\epsilon}{dt} + P \frac{d}{dt} \biggl(\frac{1}{\rho}\biggr) = 0</math>

Poisson Equation

<math> \frac{1}{\varpi} \frac{\partial }{\partial\varpi} \biggl[ \varpi \frac{\partial \Phi}{\partial\varpi} \biggr] + \frac{1}{\varpi^2} \frac{\partial^2 \Phi}{\partial \varphi^2} + \frac{\partial^2 \Phi}{\partial z^2} = 4\pi G \rho . </math>

Eulerian Formulation

Each of the above simplified governing equations has been written in terms of Lagrangian time derivatives. An Eulerian formulation of each equation can be obtained by replacing each Lagrangian time derivative by its Eulerian counterpart. Specifically, for any scalar function, <math>f</math>,

<math> \frac{df}{dt} \rightarrow \frac{\partial f}{\partial t} + (\vec{v}\cdot \nabla)f = \frac{\partial f}{\partial t} + \biggl[ \dot\varpi \frac{\partial f}{\partial\varpi} \biggr] + \biggl[ \dot\varphi \frac{\partial f}{\partial\varphi} \biggr] + \biggl[ \dot{z} \frac{\partial f}{\partial z} \biggr] . </math>


Equation of Continuity

<math> \frac{\partial\rho}{\partial t} + \biggl[ \dot\varpi \frac{\partial \rho}{\partial\varpi} \biggr] + \frac{\rho}{\varpi} \frac{\partial}{\partial\varpi} \biggl[ \varpi \dot\varpi \biggr] + \biggl[ \dot\varphi \frac{\partial \rho}{\partial\varphi} \biggr] + \frac{1}{\varpi} \frac{\partial}{\partial \varphi} \biggl[ \varpi \dot\varphi \biggr] + \biggl[ \dot{z} \frac{\partial \rho}{\partial z} \biggr] + \rho \frac{\partial}{\partial z} \biggl[ \rho \dot{z} \biggr] = 0 </math>

<math> \Rightarrow \frac{\partial\rho}{\partial t} + \biggl[ \dot\varpi \frac{\partial \rho}{\partial\varpi} \biggr] + \frac{\rho}{\varpi} \frac{\partial}{\partial\varpi} \biggl[ \varpi \dot\varpi \biggr] + \biggl[ \dot\varphi \frac{\partial \rho}{\partial\varphi} \biggr] + \frac{1}{\varpi} \frac{\partial}{\partial \varphi} \biggl[ \varpi \dot\varphi \biggr] + \biggl[ \dot{z} \frac{\partial \rho}{\partial z} \biggr] + \rho \frac{\partial}{\partial z} \biggl[ \rho \dot{z} \biggr] = 0 </math>

See Also

Whitworth's (1981) Isothermal Free-Energy Surface

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Recommended citation:   Tohline, Joel E. (2021), The Structure, Stability, & Dynamics of Self-Gravitating Fluids, a (MediaWiki-based) publication,